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Description is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse), along with exposition, argumentation, and narration. Each of the rhetorical modes is present in a variety of forms and each has its own purpose and conventions. Description is also the fiction-writing mode for transmitting a mental image of the particulars of a story. Contents [hide] * 1 Description as a rhetorical mode o 1.1 Examples of description writing * 2 Description as a fiction-writing mode * 3 Purple prose * 4 Physics * 5 References * 6 See also * 7 External links * 8 References [edit] Description as a rhetorical mode The purpose of description is to re-create or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader may picture that which is being described. Descriptive writing may be found in the other rhetorical modes. [edit] Examples of description writing * Journal writing * Poetry [edit] Description as a fiction-writing mode Fiction is a form of narrative, one of the four rhetorical modes of discourse. Fiction-writing also has distinct forms of expression, or modes, each with its own purposes and conventions. Agent and author Evan Marshall identifies five fiction-writing modes: action, summary, dialogue, feelings/thoughts, and background (Marshall 1988, pp. 143–165). Author and writing-instructor Jessica Page Morrell lists six delivery modes for fiction-writing: action, exposition, description, dialogue, summary, and transition (Morrell 2006, p. 127). Author Peter Selgin refers to methods, including action, dialogue, thoughts, summary, scene, and description (Selgin 2007, p. 38). Currently, there is no consensus within the writing community regarding the number and composition of fiction-writing modes and their uses. [1] Description is the fiction-writing mode for transmitting a mental image of the particulars of a story. Together with dialogue, narration, exposition, and summarization, description is one of the most widely recognized of the fiction-writing modes. As stated in Writing from A to Z, edited by Kirk Polking, description is more than the amassing of details; it is bringing something to life by carefully choosing and arranging words and phrases to produce the desired effect. (Polking, p. 106) The most appropriate and effective techniques for presenting description are a matter of ongoing discussion among writers and writing coaches. [2] [edit] Purple prose Purple prose is a term of literary criticism used to describe passages, or sometimes entire literary works, written in prose so overly extravagant, ornate, or flowery as to break the flow and draw attention to itself. Purple prose is sensually evocative beyond the requirements of its context. It also refers to writing that employs certain rhetorical effects such as exaggerated sentiment or pathos in an attempt to manipulate a reader's response. [edit] Physics The word description can be used interchangeably with the word theory in physics.[citation needed] When an observer is said to describe an event, experiment, or observation, this is a direct reference, which means a theory describes the event, experiment, or observation.[citation needed] [edit] References * Rozakis, Laurie (2003). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, 2nd Edition. Alpha. ISBN 978-1-59257-115-4 * Marshall, Evan (1998). The Marshall Plan for Novel Writing. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 1582970629. * Morrell, Jessica Page (2006). Between the Lines: Master the Subtle Elements of Fiction Writing. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 9781582973937. * Polking, Kirk (1990). Writing A to Z. Cincinnati, OH: Writer’s Digest Books. ISBN 0898794358. * Selgin, Peter (2007). By Cunning & Craft: Sound Advice and Practical Wisdom for fiction writers. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 9781582974910. [edit] alo is a science fiction video game franchise created by Bungie and owned and published by Microsoft Game Studios. The series centers on the interstellar war between humanity and a theocratic alliance of aliens known as the Covenant. The Covenant worship an ancient civilization known as the Forerunners, who perished in combat with the parasitical Flood. The main trilogy of games center on the experiences of the Master Chief, a cybernetically-enhanced human super-soldier, and his artificial intelligence (AI) companion, Cortana. In this setting, the term "Halo" refers to Halo megastructures: large, habitable ringed structures, similar to the Orbitals in Iain M Banks' Culture novels, or to smaller versions of Larry Niven's Ringworld.[1][2] The series has been praised as being among the best first-person shooters on a video game console, and are considered the Microsoft Xbox's "killer app".[3] This has led to the term "Halo killer" being used to describe console games that aspire, or are considered, to be better than Halo.[4] Fueled by the success of Halo: Combat Evolved, and immense marketing campaigns from publisher Microsoft, its sequels went on to break various sales records. Halo 3 sold more than US$170 million worth of copies in the first twenty-four hours of release, breaking the record set by Halo 2 three years prior.[5][6] Halo: Reach, in turn, broke the record set by Halo 3, selling $200 million USD worth of copies on its first day.[7]The games have sold over 34 million copies worldwide, and all Halo merchandise has grossed more than $1.7 billion. Strong sales of the games led to the franchise's expansion to other mediums; there are multiple bestselling novels, graphic novels, and other licensed products. Beyond the original trilogy, other "Halo" games have branched off into other video game genres, including Halo Wars, a real-time strategy game produced as developer Ensemble Studios' last project. Bungie also contributed the expansion Halo 3: ODST and a prequel Halo: Reach, their last project for the franchise. Much of the series' award-winning music was composed by Martin O'Donnell and his partner Michael Salvatori; soundtracks have been released for all games in the series. The cultural impact of the Halo series has been compared by writer Brian Bendis to that of Star Wars.[8] The collective group of fans of the series is referred to as the "Halo Nation".[9][10] Contents [hide] * 1 Story * 2 Games o 2.1 Main trilogy o 2.2 Other games o 2.3 Cancelled and related projects * 3 Development o 3.1 Cultural influences * 4 Music * 5 Adaptations o 5.1 Books and comic series o 5.2 Film o 5.3 Anime * 6 Reception and critical response * 7 Cultural impact o 7.1 Machinima * 8 References * 9 External links [edit] Story In the distant past, a race known as the Forerunners controlled the galaxy. The Forerunners used their advanced technology to protect life, but were caught off-guard by an alien parasite known as the Flood. The Flood, which spread through infestation of sentient life, threatened and overran many worlds in the galaxy before the Forerunners could attempt to contain the threat. A group of Forerunners conceived a final solution—using an installation known as the Ark, they built seven large ring-shaped megastructures known as Halos. The Halo Array, when activated, would destroy all sentient life in the galaxy—depriving the Flood of their food. Delaying as long as they could, the Forerunners finally activated the rings and disappeared.[10] Tens of thousands of years later in the 26th century, humanity—under the auspices of the United Nations Space Command or UNSC—colonize many worlds thanks to the development of faster-than-light "slipstream" travel. Tensions escalate between the older and more stable "Inner Colonies" and the remote "Outer Colonies", leading to civil war. The UNSC creates an elite group of enhanced supersoldiers, known as Spartans, to suppress the rebellion covertly.[11] In the year 2525 the human colony of Harvest falls under attack by a theocratic alliance of alien races known as the Covenant. The Covenant leadership declares humanity an affront to their gods—the Forerunners—and begins to methodically exterminate human worlds. The Covenant's superior technology and numbers prove decisive advantages; though effective, the Spartans are too few in number to turn the tide of battle in humanity's favor. In 2552, the Covenant arrive at Reach, the UNSC's last major stronghold, and launch an invasion of the planet. The last Spartans and UNSC military are unable to stop the Covenant from bombarding the surface with plasma. Following directives to avoid leading the Covenant to Earth, the artificial intelligence (AI) Cortana aboard the fleeing UNSC ship Pillar of Autumn selects coordinates that lead the ship to a Halo installation. The Covenant follow, damaging the Autumn and leading its crew to take the fight to the ring's surface. The Covenant accidentally release Flood imprisoned on the ring; in order to nullify the threat, the ring's AI caretaker, 343 Guilty Spark, enlists the human soldier Master Chief's help. Before the pair can activate Halo's defenses, however, Cortana reveals that Halo's activation would mean their own destruction. Master Chief and Cortana instead detonate the Autumn's engines, destroying Halo and preventing the escape of the Flood. They and a few other human survivors return to Earth, warning of an impending Covenant attack. Soon after, a Covenant fleet arrives at Earth. Most of the fleet is destroyed, but a single ship under the command of one of the Covenant's oligarchs, the Prophet of Regret, breaks through the human defenses and invades the African city of New Mombasa. Before the humans can assault Regret's carrier, he retreats through a slipspace portal, pursued by the Master Chief aboard the human ship In Amber Clad. Regret travels to another Halo installation, where the Master Chief kills Regret. Inner turmoil in the Covenant leads to civil war between the various member races. Learning that the activation of the Halo Array (a central tenet of the Covenant religion) would lead to their extinction, the Covenant warrior Arbiter and his brethren ally with humanity to stop the rings from being fired. The aborted activation of the ring puts all the Halo installations on standby: the remaining rings can be activated remotely from a location known as "The Ark". The Covenant begin a full-scale invasion of Earth and excavate a Forerunner artifact in the African desert that creates a slipspace portal to the Ark. The Master Chief and Arbiter travel through the portal to kill the last High Prophet, Truth, and discover the installation is building a new Halo ring to replace the one destroyed previously. In order to destroy the spreading infestation led by the Flood intelligence Gravemind, the Master Chief activates the incomplete ring—as the Ark lies outside the Milky Way Galaxy, the blast destroys the Flood but spares the galaxy at large. Because the ring's construction is incomplete, the resulting pulse destroys the ring and damages the Ark. The Arbiter escapes the explosion, but the Master Chief and Cortana are left drifting in space, trapped in the severed rear half of their ship. The Master Chief cryonically freezes himself as he and Cortana wait for rescue. In the legendary ending, the rear half is seen floating towards an unknown planet. [edit] Games [edit] Main trilogy The covers of Halo: Combat Evolved, the Halo 2 Limited Edition and the Halo 3 Legendary Edition Main articles: Halo: Combat Evolved, Halo 2, and Halo 3 Originally developed as a real-time strategy game for the Apple Macintosh platform, Halo: Combat Evolved went through several iterations before arriving at the console first person shooter for which it is recognized.[12] When the developer was bought by Microsoft in 2001, the game was rapidly finished and became an Xbox launch title and platform exclusive.[13] Released on November 15, 2001, the Xbox version of Halo: Combat Evolved is the first Halo video game.[14] The games of the main trilogy are first-person shooters, with the player experiencing most action from the protagonist's perspective.[15] Combat Evolved introduced many gameplay and plot themes common to the whole trilogy. Players battle various aliens on foot and in vehicles to complete objectives, while attempting to uncover the secrets of the eponymous Halo. One concept introduced in Halo: Combat Evolved, is limiting the number of weapons players could carry to two, forcing them to carefully select their preferred armament.[16] Players fight with ranged and melee attacks, as well as a limited number of grenades. Bungie refers to the "weapons-grenades-melee" format as the "Golden Triangle of Halo",[17] which has remained fundamentally unchanged throughout the trilogy. In Halo: Combat Evolved, the player's health is measured in both hit points and a continually recharging energy shield.[18] A PC and Mac port was later developed by Gearbox Software, and released on September 30 and November 11, 2003 respectively.[19][20] A stand-alone expansion, entitled Halo: Custom Edition, was released as a PC exclusive, and allowed players to create custom content for the game. Its sequel, Halo 2 was released on the Xbox on November 9, 2004 and later for Windows Vista on May 17, 2007. For the first time, the game was released in two different editions: a standard edition with just the game disc and traditional Xbox packaging, and the Collector's Edition with a specially designed aluminum case, along with an additional bonus DVD, extra booklet, and slightly different user manual. Halo 2 introduced new gameplay elements, chief among them the ability to hold and fire two weapons simultaneously, known as "dual wielding".[21] Unlike its predecessor, Halo 2 fully supports online multiplayer via Xbox Live. The game uses "matchmaking" to facilitate joining online matches by grouping players looking for certain types of games.[21] This was a change from the more traditional "server list" approach which was used to find matches in online games at this time. Upon release, Halo 2 became the game played by the most people on the Xbox Live service that week; regaining this title every week for over two years — the longest streak any game has held the spot.[22] Halo 3 is the third and final game in the main Halo trilogy, ending the story arc begun in Halo: Combat Evolved.[23] The game was released on the Xbox 360 on September 25, 2007.[24] It adds to the series new vehicles, new weapons, and a class of items called equipment.[25] The game also includes a limited map-editing tool known as the Forge, which allows players to insert game objects, such as weapons and crates, into existing multiplayer map geometry.[26] Players can also save a recording of their gameplay sessions, and view them as video, from any angle.[27] [edit] Other games Main articles: Halo Wars, Halo 3: ODST, and Halo: Reach The success of the main Halo trilogy has spurred the creation of spin-offs. Halo Wars is a real-time strategy game developed by Ensemble Studios for the Xbox 360. Set in the year 2531, the game takes place 21 years prior to the events of Halo: Combat Evolved. According to Ensemble, much effort has been expended into developing a control scheme that is simple and does not have issues like those in other console strategy games.[28] The game was announced at X06 and released in February and March 2009. In a July 2008 interview with MTV, Microsoft’s head of Xbox business, Don Mattrick, stated that Bungie was working on a new Halo game for Microsoft, independent of other Halo projects. An announcement of the new Halo project was expected at the 2008 E3 game exposition, which Bungie stated "has been building for several months", but was delayed by their publisher Microsoft.[29] The Halo announcement was to be part of Microsoft's 150-minute E3 presentation, and was cut to trim the presentation down to 90 minutes; Microsoft stated it wanted to give the game its own dedicated event.[30] After the release of an ambiguous teaser trailer on September 25,[31] the project was revealed as Halo 3: Recon, later changed to Halo 3: ODST. Set between the events of Halo 2 and Halo 3, players take control of elite soldiers called Orbital Drop Shock Troopers (ODST). The game was released on September 22, 2009.[32] Announced at E3 2009, Halo: Reach is a prequel to the main trilogy; it is Bungie's last Halo game, and was released September 14, 2010. Players control Noble 6, one of the members of the Spartan squad "Noble Team" as they defend Reach against the Covenant. The ending of the game directly leads into the events of Combat Evolved. [edit] Cancelled and related projects Further information: I Love Bees and Marketing for Halo 3 Alternate reality games were used to promote the release of the games in the main trilogy. The Cortana Letters, a series of cryptic email messages, were circulated by Bungie prior to Halo: Combat Evolved's release.[33] I Love Bees, an alternate reality game, was used to promote the release of Halo 2. The game focused on a website created by 42 Entertainment, commissioned by Microsoft and endorsed by Bungie. Over the course of the game, audio clips were released that eventually formed a complete five-hour story set on Earth between Halo and Halo 2.[34][35] Similarly, Iris was used as a viral marketing campaign for the release of Halo 3.[36] It featured five web servers containing various media files related to the Halo universe. Spin-off titles were planned for release on handheld systems, but proved to be either rumors or did not progress far in development. Rumors of a handheld Halo title for the Game Boy Advance surfaced in 2004. Bungie denied the rumors and commented that such a project between Microsoft and Nintendo would be "very unlikely".[37] At a Las Vegas consumer technology convention in January 2005, rumors spread about a version of Halo for the handheld Gizmondo system. Bungie denied the rumors stating they were not making a game for the system.[38][39] A former Gizmondo employee later revealed development only extended to basic story and game structure concepts to obtain funding from investors.[40] In 2006, a concept video for Microsoft's portable Ultra-Mobile PC featured footage of Halo and caused speculation for a handheld title. Microsoft later stated the footage was for demonstration purposes only; Halo was included because it was a Microsoft-owned property.[41] In January 2007, IGN editor-in-chief Matt Casamassina claimed he played a version of Halo for the Nintendo DS.[42] He later demonstrated on-camera, in-game footage of an early-development style version of Halo DS.[43] The demonstrated work featured dual-wielding and a version of the Halo 2 map Zanzibar.[42] On October 5, 2007, Bungie employee Brian Jarrard explained the Halo DS demo was in fact an unsolicited pitch that was never taken on.[44] In 2006, Microsoft announced an episodic video game to be developed by film director Peter Jackson's Wingnut Interactive.[45] The game, dubbed Halo: Chronicles, was confirmed to be in development in 2007,[46] and by 2008 was still hiring for positions on the development team.[47] Jackson told game blog Joystiq in July 2009 that the project was no longer in development.[48][49] Jackson's manager Ken Kamins explained that the project was cancelled as part of budget cuts tied to job layoffs in January 2009.[50] Before the company was shuttered, Ensemble Studios had been working on a Halo-themed massively multiplayer online game. The project was cancelled internally in 2007, without a formal announcement from Microsoft.[51] Elements from the Halo universe have also appeared in other games. A Halo-based character, SPARTAN Nicole-458, appeared in Dead or Alive 4, a product of the collaboration between Tecmo's Team Ninja and Microsoft's Bungie Studios.[52] The Halo themetune was also available DLC for Guitar Hero III Legends of Rock. [edit] Development Bungie (formerly Bungie Software Products Corporation) was a Chicago, Illinois-based game development company started in 1991 by Alex Seropian. Seropian partnered with programmer Jason Jones to market and release Jones' game Minotaur: The Labyrinths of Crete. Focusing on the Macintosh game market because it was smaller and easier to compete, Bungie became the biggest Mac developer with games including the shooters Pathways Into Darkness and Marathon. What became Halo was originally code-named Monkey Nuts and Blam!,[53] and took place on a hollowed-out world called Solipsis.[54] The planet eventually became a ringworld, and an artist suggested the name "Halo", which became the game's title.[55] The first Halo game was announced on July 21, 1999, during the Macworld Conference & Expo.[12] It was originally planned to be a real-time strategy game for the Mac and Windows operating systems, but later changed into a third-person action game.[12][56][57] On June 19, 2000, Microsoft acquired Bungie Studios and Halo: Combat Evolved became a launch title for the Xbox video game console.[13] After receiving Xbox development kits, Bungie Studios rewrote the game's engine, heavily altered its presentation, and turned it into a first-person shooter. Though the first Halo was meant to include an online multiplayer mode, it was excluded because Xbox Live was not yet available.[58] Halo was not intended to be the Xbox's flagship game due to internal concerns and gaming press criticism, but Microsoft VP of game publishing Ed Fries did not act on these concerns. The Xbox's marketing heavily featured Halo, whose green color palette meshed with the console's design scheme.[59] The success of the game led to a sequel, Halo 2, which was announced on August 8, 2002 at the Microsoft's New York X02 press event.[60] It featured improved graphics, new weapons, and a multiplayer mode on Xbox Live.[61][62] Halo 3 was announced at the 2006 Electronic Entertainment Expo.[63] The initial conception for the third game was done before Halo 2 was released in 2004.[64] It utilized a proprietary, in-house graphics engine, and employed advanced graphics technologies.[65][66] Following the release of Halo 3, Bungie announced it was splitting off from Microsoft and becoming an independent limited liability company. While Bungie remains involved in the Halo series by developing games such as ODST and Reach, the rights to Halo remain with Microsoft. To oversee everything Halo, Microsoft created an internal division, 343 Industries,[67] serving as "stewards" for the franchise.[68] Frank O'Connor, formerly a Bungie employee,[69] now serves as 343's creative director.[67] In announcing the formation of 343 Industries, Microsoft also announced that Xbox Live would be home to a central hub for Halo content called Halo Waypoint.[70] Waypoint is accessed from the Xbox 360 Dashboard and offers players access to multimedia content in addition to tracking their Halo game "career". O'Connor described Waypoint as intended to be the prime destination for Halo.[71] [edit] Cultural influences In 2006, in acknowledgement of the "wealth of influences adopted by the Bungie team", a list of Bungie employees' favourite science fiction material was published on the company's website.[72] The developers acknowledged that the Halo series' use of ring-shaped megastructures followed on from concepts featured in Larry Niven's Ringworld and Iain M. Banks' Culture series (of which Consider Phlebas[73] and Excession[72] were said to be particularly influential). In a retrospective article in Edge, Bungie's Jaime Griesemer commented, "The influence of something like Ringworld isn't necessarily in the design—it's in that feeling of being somewhere else. That sense of scale and an epic story going on out there."[73] Griesemer also explained, "One of the main sources of inspiration was Armor [by John Steakley], in which a soldier has to constantly re-live the same war over and over again. That sense of hopelessness, a relentless battle, was influential."[73] The Flood were influenced by the assimilating alien species in Christopher Rowley's The Vang;[73] it has also been speculated that the Master Chief's name "John 117" may have been a reference to a character named Jon 6725416 in Rowley's Starhammer,[74] or to the John Spartan character of Demolition Man.[75] An IGN article exploring the literary influences present in the Halo franchise commented on similarities between Halo and Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game: aspects of the SPARTAN Project and the design of the Covenant Drones are perceived as reminiscent of the super soldier program and Buggers found in the novel.[74] Bungie has also acknowledged James Cameron's film Aliens as a strong cinematic influence.[76] A report written by Roger Travis and published by The Escapist compares Halo with the Latin epic Aeneid, written by classical Roman poet Virgil. Travis posits similarities between the plots of both works and compares the characters present in them, with the Flood and Covenant taking the role performed by the Carthaginians, and the Master Chief's role in the series to that of Aeneas.[77] [edit] Music Martin O'Donnell, the composer of the music to the Halo trilogy Main articles: Halo Original Soundtrack, Halo 2 Original Soundtrack, Halo 3 Original Soundtrack, and Halo Wars Soundtrack Four Halo soundtracks, composed by Martin O'Donnell, have been released. The Halo Original Soundtrack contains most of Combat Evolved's music. Due to the varying nature of gameplay, the music present was designed to use the game's dynamic audio playback engine. The engine allows for the mood, theme, and duration of music played to change according to gameplay.[78] To afford a more enjoyable listening experience, O'Donnell rearranged portions of the music of Halo into standalone suites, which follow the narrative course of the game. The soundtrack also contains music not used in the game, including a variation on the Halo theme that was first played at Halo's debut at Macworld 1999.[79] For Halo 2's soundtrack, producer Nile Rodgers and O’Donnell decided to split the music into two separate volumes. The first, Volume One, was released on November 9, 2004 and contained all the themes as well as the “inspired-by” music present in the game (featuring Steve Vai, Incubus, Hoobastank, and Breaking Benjamin). The second release, Volume 2, contained the rest of the music, much of which was incomplete or not included in the first soundtrack, as the first soundtrack was shipped before the game was released;[80] the second volume was released on April 25, 2006. Halo 2, unlike its predecessor, was mixed to take full advantage of Dolby 5.1 Digital Surround Sound.[81] The soundtrack for Halo 3 was released on November 20, 2007. O'Donnell noted he wanted to bring back the themes from the original game in order to help tie together the end of the trilogy.[82] The tracks are presented, similarly to the previous soundtrack for Halo 2,[80] in a suite form. Unlike previous soundtracks, where much of the music had been synthesized on computer, the soundtrack for Halo 3 was recorded using a 60-piece orchestra, along with a 24-voice chorus.[83] The final soundtrack was recorded by the Northwest Sinfonia at Studio X in Seattle, Washington.[84] The soundtracks were bundled and released as a box set in December 2008.[85] A soundtrack for Halo 3: ODST was released alongside the game and included many of the tracks from the game.[86] For Halo Wars, the task of creating the game's music fell to Stephen Rippy. Rippy listened to O'Donnell's soundtracks for inspiration and incorporated the Halo theme into parts of his arrangements. In addition to synthesized and orchestral components, the composer focused on the choir and piano as essential elements, feeling these were important in creating the "Halo sound".[87] Rather than use the Northwest Sinfonia, Rippy travelled to Prague and recorded with the FILMharmonic Orchestra before returning to the United States to complete the music. A standalone compact disc and digital download retail version of the soundtrack was announced in January 2009 for release on February 17.[88] [edit] Adaptations Further information: List of Halo media The Halo franchise includes various types of merchandise and adaptations outside of the video games. This includes bestselling novels, graphic novels, and other licensed products, from action figures to a packaging tie-in with Mountain Dew. Numerous action figures and vehicles based on Halo have been produced. Joyride Studios created Halo and Halo 2 action figures, while Halo 3 poseable and collectible action figures, aimed at collectors, were produced by McFarlane Toys and became some of the top-selling action figures of 2007 and 2008.[89] MEGA Blocks partnered with Microsoft to produce Halo Wars-themed toys.[90] [edit] Books and comic series Halo authors Joseph Staten and Eric Nylund There have been numerous printed adaptations based on the Halo canon established by the video games. Larry Niven (author of Ringworld) was originally approached to write a Halo novelization, but declined due to unfamiliarity with the subject matter.[91] The first novel was Halo: The Fall of Reach, a prequel to Halo: Combat Evolved. It was written by Eric Nylund in seven weeks, and published in October 2001.[92] William C. Dietz wrote an adaptation of Halo: Combat Evolved called Halo: The Flood, which was released in 2003.[93] Eric Nylund returned to write the third novel, Halo: First Strike, which takes place between Halo: Combat Evolved and Halo 2, and was published in December 2003. Nylund also wrote the fourth adaptation, Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, which was published on October 31, 2006.[94] Bungie employee Joseph Staten wrote the fifth book, Halo: Contact Harvest, which was released on October 30, 2007, while Tobias S. Buckell produced the sixth, Halo: The Cole Protocol, published in November 2008. Bungie considers the Halo novels as additions to the Halo canon.[95] The Halo universe was first adapted into the graphic novel format in 2006, with the release of the Halo Graphic Novel, a collection of four short stories.[96] It was written and illustrated by graphic novelists Lee Hammock, Jay Faerber, Tsutomu Nihei, Brett Lewis, Simon Bisley, Ed Lee and Jean Giraud. At the 2007 New York Comic Con, Marvel Comics announced they would be working on an ongoing Halo series with Brian Michael Bendis and Alex Maleev. The limited series, titled Halo: Uprising, bridges the gap between the events of Halo 2 and Halo 3;[8] initially planned to conclude shortly before the release of Halo 3, the constant delays led to the final issue being published April 2009.[97] Marvel announced at the 2009 Comic Con that two new comics, a five-part series written by Peter David and a second series written by Fred Van Lente, would appear the coming summer and winter.[98] David's series, Helljumper, is set prior to Halo: Combat Evolved and focuses on the elite Orbital Drop Shock Troopers. The five-part series was published between July and November 2009.[99] Lente's series, originally titled Spartan Black, revolves around a black ops team of Spartan supersoldiers assigned to the UNSC Office of Naval Intelligence.[100] The rebranded comic, Blood Line, debuted in December 2009.[101] A collection of Halo stories, Halo: Evolutions, was simultaneously released in print and audiobook formats in November 2009. Evolutions includes original material by Nylund, Buckell, Karen Traviss and contributions from Bungie.[102] Science fiction author Greg Bear has been contracted to write a trilogy of books focusing on the Forerunners titled Halo: Cryptum, with the first volume to appear in 2011,[103] while Traviss is writing a series of novels taking place after the events of Halo 3.[104] Tor is also rereleasing the first three Halo novels with new content and cover art.[105] [edit] Film In 2005, Columbia Pictures president Peter Schlessel began working outside the studio system to produce a Halo filmic adaptation. Alex Garland wrote the first script,[106] which was then pitched to studios by couriers dressed as Master Chief. Microsoft's terms required $10 million against 15 percent of gross; most studios passed, citing the lack of risk for Microsoft compared to their large share of potential profits. 20th Century Fox and Universal Studios decided to partner to produce the film, paying Microsoft $5 million to option the film and 10 percent of grosses.[107] Peter Jackson was slated to be the executive producer,[108] with Neill Blomkamp as director. Before Blomkamp signed on, Guillermo del Toro was in negotiations to direct.[109] D. B. Weiss and Josh Olson rewrote Garland's script during 2006.[110] The crew stopped and resumed preproduction of the film several times.[111] Later that year, 20th Century Fox threatened to pull out of the project, leading Universal to issue an ultimatum to Jackson and Schlessel: either cut their large "first-dollar" deals, or the project was ended. Both refused, and the project stalled.[107] Blomkamp declared the project dead in late 2007,[112] but Jackson replied that the film would still be made.[113] Blomkamp and Jackson collaborated on District 9, but the director told /Film that he was no longer considering working on a Halo film if the opportunity arose,[114] saying that after working on the film for five months before the project's collapse it would be difficult to return. The rights for the film have since reverted back to Microsoft.[115] O'Connor has stated that the movie will be made at some point.[116] At one point, filmmaker Steven Spielberg had expressed interest in being involved in the making of a film adaptation of Halo.[117] [edit] Anime Main article: Halo Legends Microsoft announced at Comic-Con 2009 that it was overseeing production of a series of seven short anime films, together called Halo Legends. Financed by 343 Industries, the animation was created by five Japanese production houses: Bones, Casio Entertainment, Production I.G., Studio 4°C, and Toei Animation. Shinji Aramaki, creator and director of Appleseed and Appleseed Ex Machina, serves as the project's creative director. Warner Bros. distributed Legends on DVD and Blu-ray in February 2010.[67][118] Six of the stories are officially part of the Halo canon, with the seventh, made by Toei, intended to be a parody of the universe.[119] [edit] Reception and critical response Launch events such as this one in New York City were held the night of Halo 3's release. The Halo franchise has been highly successful commercially and critically. During the two months following Halo: Combat Evolved's release, it sold alongside more than fifty percent of Xbox consoles[120] and sold a million units by April 2002.[121] Halo 2's sales generated US$125 million on its premiere day, making it the fastest selling United States media product in history up to that time.[122][123] Combined with Halo's sales, the two games sold 14.8 million units before Halo 3's release.[124] GameSpot reported 4.2 million units of Halo 3 were in retail outlets on September 24, 2007, a day before official release—a world record volume.[125][126] Halo 3 broke the previous record for the highest grossing opening day in entertainment history, making US$170 million in its first twenty-four hours.[126][127] Worldwide, sales exceeded US$300 million the first week, helping to more than double the sales of the Xbox 360 when compared with the weekly average before the Halo 3 launch.[124][128] At the end of 2007, Halo 2 and Halo: Combat Evolved were the number one and two best-selling Xbox titles, respectively, and Halo 3 was the best-selling Xbox 360 title.[129] Halo Wars was the best-selling RTS console game, selling more than one million units.[130] The Halo series went on to sell more than 27 million copies by August 2009,[131] and more than 34 million copies by May 2010.[132] Tor Books reported that sales of all franchise materials are greater than $1.7 billion,[105] and Bungie's games before Reach accounted for $1.5 billion in sales.[133] The soundtracks to Halo 2, Halo 3, ODST and Reach all appeared on the Billboard 200 charts for at least one week.[134] The Halo adaptations have been successful as well. All the novels have appeared on Publisher Weekly's bestseller charts and the Halo Graphic Novel sold more than 100,000 copies, a "rare hit" for the games-to-comics genre.[135][136] Ghosts of Onyx, Contact Harvest, and The Cole Protocol appeared on The New York Times bestseller lists,[93][137][138][139] and The Cole Protocol also opened 50th overall on USA Today's bestsellers list.[140] Tor's first three novels sold more than one million copies by April 2009.[141] Aggregate review scores Game GameRankings Metacritic Halo: Combat Evolved 96%[142] 97 of 100[143] Halo 2 95%[144] 95 of 100[145] Halo 3 94%[146] 94 of 100[147] Halo Wars 82%[148] 82 of 100[149] Halo 3: ODST 85%[150] 83 of 100[151] Halo: Reach 93%[152] 94 of 100[153] Overall, the Halo series has been well received by critics. Halo: Combat Evolved has received numerous Game of the Year awards.[154][155] In March 2007, IGN listed it as the top Xbox game of all time, while readers ranked it the fourteenth best game ever on "IGN Readers' Choice 2006 - The Top 100 Games Ever".[156][157] Conversely, GameSpy ranked Halo: Combat Evolved tenth on its list of "Top 25 Most Overrated Games of All Time", citing repetitive level design and the lack of an online multiplayer mode.[158] Halo 2 also received numerous awards,[159] with IGN listing it as the number two top Xbox game of all time in March 2007.[156] From its initial release on the Xbox in November 2004 until the launch of Gears of War on the Xbox 360 in November 2006 - two years later - Halo 2 was the most popular video game on Xbox Live.[160] Halo 3 was nominated for and won multiple awards; it won Time magazine's "Game of the Year" and IGN chose it as the Best Xbox 360 Online Multiplayer Game and Innovative Design of 2007.[161][162][163] Most publications called the multiplayer aspect one of the best features; IGN said the multiplayer map lineup was the strongest of the series, and GameSpy added that the multiplayer offering will greatly please "Halo veterans".[164][165] Complaints focused on the game's plot. The New York Times said the game had a "throwaway" plot and Total Video Games judged the single-player aspect ultimately disappointing.[166][167] The series' music and audio has received enthusiastic response from game reviewers.[165][168][169] [edit] Cultural impact The main trilogy, particularly its protagonist, has been declared iconic and a symbol of today's videogames; a wax replica of the Master Chief was made by Madame Tussauds in Las Vegas, where Pete Wentz compared the character to notable characters from previous generations like Spider-Man, Frodo, and Luke Skywalker.[170] The Escapist author Roger Travis compared Halo's story to Virgil's Aeneid, saying the religious and political struggle described in the games relates to the modern epic tradition.[77] GamesTM stated Halo: Combat Evolved "changed videogame combat forever", and Halo 2 showcased Xbox Live as a tool for communities.[15] GameDaily noted Halo 2's launch was "easily comparable to the biggest in other sectors of the entertainment industry", marking the first time a video game launch has become a major cultural event in America.[171] Time magazine included the franchise in the "2005 Time 100", highlighting that in the first ten weeks after the release of Halo 2, players spent 91 million combined hours playing the game online.[172] A The New York Times report noted the success of Halo 3 was critical for Microsoft, persuading consumers to buy the Xbox 360 console which was experiencing waning sales compared with the Nintendo Wii, as well as helping restore the console's image. On September 25, 2007, the release date for Halo 3, Microsoft's shares rose 1.7% based on sales expectations for the game.[173] Halo has been described as a series that "has reinvented a genre that didn't know it needed to be reinvented", with aspects of the main trilogy being duplicated in other FPS games multiple times.[174] Variety called Halo "the equivalent of Star Wars".[175] [edit] Machinima As a highly popular video game series with a large and active fan base, the Halo trilogy has given rise to an array of video productions in an emerging entertainment medium, machinima.[176] Virtually all machinima footage is taken from the multiplayer modes of the main trilogy games. Most productions are set outside Halo canon, while others are based on fan fiction closely relating to the official story. Halo 3 includes a saved film function that allows camera angles not possible in previous games, and other features that simplify production. The game has become one of the most popular tools for generating machinima, and Microsoft updated its user license agreement to allow noncommercial distribution of such films.[177] A notable machinima production is the comedy series Red vs. Blue: The Blood Gulch Chronicles created by Rooster Teeth Productions. It has achieved an unparalleled level of success in Halo machinima in specific, and machinima in general; it is credited with bringing attention to the genre.[126][178] Red vs. Blue generated annual revenues of US$200,000, and special promotional episodes were commissioned by Bungie.[126] The series ended on June 28, 2007, after 100 regular episodes and numerous promotional videos.[179] Sequels to the series include Reconstruction, which contains more dramatic elements than its comedic predecessor,[180] Relocated, Recreation, and Revelation. Other machinima series include Fire Team Charlie, The Codex, and the in-game interview show This Spartan Life. 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